Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review

Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review


Blockchain for the Metaverse: A Review


Thippa Reddy Gadekallu, Senior Member, IEEE, Thien Huynh-The, Member, IEEE, Weizheng Wang, Gokul Yenduri, Pasika Ranaweera, Member, IEEE, Quoc-Viet Pham, Member, IEEE, Daniel Benevides da Costa, Senior Member, IEEE, and Madhusanka Liyanage, Senior Member, IEEE


Since Facebook officially changed its name to Metaverse in Oct. 2021, the metaverse has become a new norm of social networks and three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds. The metaverse aims to bring 3D immersive and personalized experiences to users by leveraging many pertinent technologies. Despite great attention and benefits, a natural question in the metaverse is how to secure its users’ digital content and data. In this regard, blockchain is a promising solution owing to its distinct features of decentralization, immutability, and transparency. To better understand the role of blockchain in the metaverse, we aim to provide an extensive survey on the applications of blockchain for the metaverse. We first present a preliminary to blockchain and the metaverse and highlight the motivations behind the use of blockchain for the metaverse. Next, we extensively discuss blockchain-based methods for the metaverse from technical perspectives, such as data acquisition, data storage, data sharing, data interoperability, and data privacy preservation. For each perspective, we first discuss the technical challenges of the metaverse and then highlight how blockchain can help. Moreover, we investigate the impact of blockchain on key-enabling technologies in the metaverse, including Internet-ofThings, digital twins, multi-sensory and immersive applications, artificial intelligence, and big data. We also present some major projects to showcase the role of blockchain in metaverse applications and services. Finally, we present some promising directions to drive further research innovations and developments towards the use of blockchain in the metaverse in the future.


Blockchain, metaverse, privacy, vertical applications.